Changes in the amount of reduced glutathione and activity of antioxidant enzymes in chosen mouse organs influenced by zymosan and melatonin administration

Reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)  and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) are vital components of the  antioxidative barrier in animal cells. It is suggested more often now  that the effectiveness of the protection of cells against the oxidative stress caused by the inflammation process depends on the  amount of GSH and the activity of SOD, CAT and GSHPx. That is why the  effect of zymosan A (40 mg/kg body mass) and the combined treatment  with zymosan A (at the same dose) and melatonin (50 mg/kg body mass)  on the amount of GSH in the blood and the amount of GSH and activity  of SOD, CAT and GSHPx in the brain, liver and kidneys of male mice was  estimated. Animals (n = 108) were decapitated after 3, 6 and 24 hours  since the moment of the administration of only zymosan A, and combined  zymosan A and after one hour melatonin. After the injection of zymosan  A it was found that the amount of GSH is significantly lower after 3  and 6 hours in the blood and studied organs. The administration of  zymosan A, followed by the administration of melatonin limited the  decrease in the amount of this tripeptide in the same time.  Simultaneously, the decrease in the amount of GSH in the studied  organs was accompanied by a similar decrease in the activity of SOD,
CAT and GSHPx after the injection of only zymosan A and a limited  decrease in the activity after the administration of both zymosan A  and melatonin. It is suggested that a decreased content of GSH and a  decrease in the activity of the studied antioxidative enzymes is  caused by the oxidative stress accompanying the inflammation process.
PMID:21555265

J Neurochem. 2006 Jul;98(1):267-78.

Simultaneous measurement of serotonin and melatonin from the intestine of old mice: the effects of daily melatonin supplementation

Bertrand PP, Bertrand RL, Camello PJ, Pozo MJ. Department of
Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales,
Sydney, NSW, Australia. dr.p.bertr@gmail.com

Ageing is associated with important changes in gastrointestinal function and in the levels of intestinal hormones secreted.  Enterochromaffin (EC) cells containing serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin  may play a major role in maintaining gut function during ageing. Our  aim was to characterise the mucosal availability of 5-HT and melatonin  in the ileum and colon of a mouse model of ageing. Female young mice  (2-5 month; n = 6), aged mice (22-24 months; n = 6) and aged mice  treated with melatonin (n = 6; 10 mg/kg/day) were examined.
Electrochemical methods were used to measure 5-HT and melatonin  concentrations near the mucosal surface of ileum and distal colon.  Amperometry studies showed that steady state levels of 5-HT from ileum
and colon were decreased in aged mice treated with melatonin when  compared to aged mice, while compression-evoked 5-HT release was  unchanged. Differential pulse voltammetry studies showed that young
mice had concentrations of 5-HT of 4.8 +/- 0.8 mum in the ileum and  4.9 +/- 1.0 mum in the colon. Concentrations of melatonin were 5.7 +/-  1.4 mum in the ileum and 5.6 +/- 1.9 mum in the colon. Compared to
young mice, the levels of 5-HT and melatonin were increased in aged  mice (combined ileum and colon: 5-HT = 130% and melatonin = 126% of  young mice) and decreased in melatonin-treated mice (5-HT = 94% and
melatonin = 82%). In conclusion, our data show that the availability  of gut 5-HT and melatonin is increased in aged mice and melatonin  treatment suppresses natural gastrointestinal production of 5-HT and
melatonin in the aged mouse intestine. PMID:20374441

Melatonin seems to exert its antioxidant effect in GIS tract by
stimulating SOD and GSH-Px. Selenium also seems to have an antioxidant
contribution on protecting rat gastrointestinal tract I-R injury.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11093033

The higher plasma levels of melatonin in DSS-treated mice might be due
to a stress-induced increase in the production of gastrointestinal
(GIT) melatonin. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8609593

Experiments were performed to determine whether diurnal variations in
apoptosis in the mouse small intestine after irradiation with 2.5 Gy
gamma rays depended on the time of day that the mice were irradiated.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9525500

Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2010 Jan;73(1):7-9.

Comparative experimental study of the psychotropic and chronotropic
activity of adaptogenic phytopreparations and melaxen.

Arushanian EB, Naumov SS.

Adaptogenic drugs of plant origin (complex phytopreparation tonizid,
Ginkgo biloba extract bilobil) and hormonal origin (melaxen or
melatonin) exhibit similar spectra ofpsychotropic activity in rats,
which are manifested by improved memory, increased locomotion and
investigation activity, and decreased anxiety. At the same time, these
drugs had different chronotropic properties, depending on the schedule
(acute vs. repeated) and daytime (morning vs. evening) of
administration. PMID:20184280

Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2009 Jul-Aug;72(4):3-5.

Dependence of atropin-induced amnesia fluctuations on the state of
pineal gland.

Arushanian EB, Beĭer EV, skorniakoc AA.

Atropin produces weakening of the memory on the model of passive
avoidance reaction in rats, the effect being more pronounced in
evening hours. The drug effect is increased in pinealectomized animals
and attenuated by the pineal hormone melatonin, also differently in
daytime. PMID:19803360

Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2006 Nov-Dec;69(6):17-9.

Effects of melatonin and motherwort tincture on the emotional state
and visual functions in anxious subjects.

Ovanesov KB, Ovanesova IM, Arushanian EB.

The chronic administration of melatonin (0.75 mg at night, 10 days)
led to a significant decrease in the thresholds of retinal brightness
sensitivity and improved the emotional state in anxious young
subjects. Analogous changes were less pronounced after the treatment
with common motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) tincture. It is suggested
that there is a relation between the limitation of anxiety and the
improvement of visual function (sensitivity). PMID:17209457

Eksp Klin Farmakol. 2006 Nov-Dec;69(6):13-6.

Comparative study of the effects of melatonin and epitalon on the
protracted memory under the shuttle labyrinth test conditions in rats
in the course of aging.

Vinogradova IA.

The influence of the chronic administration of melatonin (epiphyseal
hormone) and epitalon (a synthetic tetrapeptide increasing melatonin
production) on the learning process and the protracted memory has been
studied in LIO rats in the course of aging for 2 years under standard
illumination regime (12L :12D). The daily administration of melatonin
(Sigma, USA) with drinking water (in 10 mg/liter dose at night) in
rats beginning with the age of 4 months did not influence the learning
processes in young and adult animals but it was found to contribute to
optimization of the brain cognitive function in rats in the course of
aging, by improving the protracted memory process. Epitalon
administered in a daily dose of 0.1 microg per animal beginning with
the age of 4 months showed mnemotropic properties (decreasing the
extent of memory disorders) in old rats under conditions of the
shuttle labyrinth test. PMID:17209456

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