To compare the incidence of hypoglycaemic events (HEs) in a real-world setting in Muslim patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus fasting during Ramadan.


We performed a ≤16-week prospective, non-interventional, two-cohort study. Data were collected 1-6 weeks before and ≤6 weeks after fasting. Patients were enrolled who had been receiving vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or sulphonylurea (SU) as add-on to metformin at least 4 weeks prior to fasting.


The primary efficacy endpoint was incidence of HEs during the Ramadan fast. Changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and body weight, as well as adherence to treatment, were also assessed.


Seventy-two patients were enrolled (vildagliptin, n = 30; SU, n = 41; no treatment, n = 1), of whom 23 (76.7%) and 36 (87.8%), respectively, completed the study. With vildagliptin, there were no HEs or severe HEs, compared with 34 HEs (15 patients, 41.7%) and one severe (grade 2) HE with SU. The mean between-group difference in the proportion who experienced at least one HE was -41.7% (95%CI -57.8%, -25.6%), p = 0.0002. Vildagliptin lowered mean HbA(1c) from 7.6% (SD 0.9%) at baseline to 7.2% (SD 0.7%) post-Ramadan, whereas SU had no effect (7.2% [SD 0.6%] vs 7.3% [SD 0.7%]; mean between-group difference -0.5% [95% CI -0.9%, -0.1%], p = 0.0262). The mean number of missed doses was markedly lower with vildagliptin (0.2 [SD 0.8] vs 7.6 [SD 14.9]; mean between-group difference -7.4 [95% CI -13.7, -1.20] doses; p = 0.0204). Body weight remained unchanged in both groups.


Vildagliptin caused no hypoglycaemia, was well adhered to and improved HbA(1c), making it a suitable treatment option for managing fasting. Study limitations are the sample size and the lack of diet and exercise data. When extrapolated to the global Muslim population with a similar clinical background, these findings could have considerable public health and clinical implications.