Category: anti-inflammatory


Evidence-based efficacy of adaptogens in fatigue, and molecular mechanisms related to their stress-protective activity

Source

Swedish Herbal Institute Research and Development, Spårvägen 2, SE-43296 Askloster, Sweden. alexander.panossian@shi.se

Abstract

The aim of this review article is to assess the level of scientific evidence presented by clinical trials of adaptogens in fatigue, and to provide a rationale at the molecular level for verified effects. Strong scientific evidence is available for Rhodiola rosea SHR-5 extract, which improved attention, cognitive function and mental performance in fatigue and in chronic fatigue syndrome. Good scientific evidence has been documented in trails in which Schisandra chinensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus increased endurance and mental performance in patients with mild fatigue and weakness. Based on their efficacy in clinical studies, adaptogens can be defined as a pharmacological group of herbal preparations that increase tolerance to mental exhaustion and enhance attention and mental endurance in situations of decreased performance. The beneficial stress-protective effect of adaptogens is related to regulation of homeostasis via several mechanisms of action associated with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the control of key mediators of stress response such as molecular chaperons (e.g. Hsp70), stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK1), Forkhead Box O transcription factor DAF-16, cortisol and nitric oxide (NO). The key point of action of phytoadaptogens appears to be their up-regulating and stress-mimetic effects on the “stress-sensor” protein Hsp70, which plays an important role in cell survival and apoptosis. Hsp70 inhibits the expression of NO synthase II gene and interacts with glucocorticoid receptors directly and via the JNK pathway, thus affecting the levels of circulating cortisol and NO. Prevention of stress-induced increase in NO, and the associated decrease in ATP production, results in increased performance and endurance. Adaptogen-induced up-regulation of Hsp70 triggers stress-induced JNK-1 and DAF-16-mediated pathways regulating the resistance to stress and resulting in enhanced mental and physical performance and, possibly, increased longevity.

PMID:
19500070
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Curcumin activates AMPK and suppresses gluconeogenic gene expression in hepatoma cells.
Kim T, Davis J, Zhang AJ, He X, Mathews ST.
Source

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Boshell Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Research Program, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.
Abstract

Curcumin, the bioactive component of curry spice turmeric, and its related structures possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Several lines of evidence suggest that curcumin may play a beneficial role in animal models of diabetes, both by lowering blood glucose levels and by ameliorating the long-term complications of diabetes. However, current understanding of the mechanism of curcumin action is rudimentary and is limited to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study we examine potential anti-diabetic mechanisms of curcumin, curcumin C3 complex), and tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC). Curcuminoids did not exert a direct effect on receptor tyrosine kinase activity, 2-deoxy glucose uptake in L6-GLUT4myc cells, or intestinal glucose metabolism measured by DPP4/alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity. We demonstrate that curcuminoids effectively suppressed dexamethasone-induced phosphoenol pyruvate carboxy kinase (PEPCK) and glucose6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in H4IIE rat hepatoma and Hep3B human hepatoma cells. Furthermore, curcuminoids increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in H4IIE and Hep3B cells with 400 times (curcumin) to 100,000 times (THC) the potency of metformin. These results suggest that AMPK mediated suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis may be a potential mechanism mediating glucose-lowering effects of curcuminoids.

PMID:
19665995
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa).
Chainani-Wu N.
Source

Department of Stomatology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0658, USA. nitacwu@itsa.ucsf.edu
Abstract
INTRODUCTION:

Tumeric is a spice that comes from the root Curcuma longa, a member of the ginger family, Zingaberaceae. In Ayurveda (Indian traditional medicine), tumeric has been used for its medicinal properties for various indications and through different routes of administration, including topically, orally, and by inhalation. Curcuminoids are components of tumeric, which include mainly curcumin (diferuloyl methane), demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcmin.
OBJECTIVES:

The goal of this systematic review of the literature was to summarize the literature on the safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin.
METHODS:

A search of the computerized database MEDLINE (1966 to January 2002), a manual search of bibliographies of papers identified through MEDLINE, and an Internet search using multiple search engines for references on this topic was conducted. The PDR for Herbal Medicines, and four textbooks on herbal medicine and their bibliographies were also searched.
RESULTS:

A large number of studies on curcumin were identified. These included studies on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antifungal properties of curcuminoids. Studies on the toxicity and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin have included in vitro, animal, and human studies. A phase 1 human trial with 25 subjects using up to 8000 mg of curcumin per day for 3 months found no toxicity from curcumin. Five other human trials using 1125-2500 mg of curcumin per day have also found it to be safe. These human studies have found some evidence of anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin. The laboratory studies have identified a number of different molecules involved in inflammation that are inhibited by curcumin including phospholipase, lipooxygenase, cyclooxygenase 2, leukotrienes, thromboxane, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interferon-inducible protein, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and interleukin-12 (IL-12).
CONCLUSIONS:

Curcumin has been demonstrated to be safe in six human trials and has demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. It may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play a role in inflammation.

PMID:
12676044
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Curcumin stimulates glucose uptake through AMPK-p38 MAPK pathways in L6 myotube cells
Ji Hae Kim 1, Ji Man Park 2, Eung-Kyun Kim 2, Jung Ok Lee 1, Soo Kyung Lee 1, Jin Hee Jung 1, Ga Young You 1, Sun Hwa Park 1, Pann-Ghill Suh 2 *, Hyeon Soo Kim 1 *
1Department of Anatomy, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
2Division of Molecular and Life Science, POSTECH (Pohang University Science and Technology), Pohang, South Korea

Abstract
Curcumin has been shown to exert a variety of beneficial human health effects. However, mechanisms by which curcumin acts are poorly understood. In this study, we report that curcumin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased glucose uptake in rat L6 myotubes. In addition, curcumin activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)3/6-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in the downstream of the AMPK cascade. Moreover, inhibition of either AMPK or p38 MAPK resulted in blockage of curcumin-induced glucose uptake. Furthermore, the administration of curcumin to mice increased AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscles. Taken together, these results indicate that the beneficial health effect of curcumin can be explained by its ability to activate AMPK-p38 MAPK pathways in skeletal muscles. J. Cell. Physiol. 223:771-778, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.