Tag Archive: Interleukin-6

Polydeoxyribonucleotide reduces cytokine production and the severity of collagen-induced arthritis by stimulation of adenosine A(₂A) receptor


University of Messina, Messina, Italy.



Broad antiinflammatory effects following adenosine A(₂A) receptor stimulation have been demonstrated in acute inflammatory diseases, including arthritis. Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) activates the adenosine A(₂A) receptor. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of PDRN in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice.


Arthritis was induced in DBA/1 mice by an intradermal injection of 100 μl of bovine type II collagen in Freund’s complete adjuvant. Mice were immunized a second time 21 days later. Control animals received 100 μl of a saline solution. Animals with CIA were randomized to receive one of the following: vehicle (1 ml/kg); PDRN (8 mg/kg intraperitoneally daily); 3,7-dimethyl-propargylxanthine (DMPX), a specific adenosine A(₂A) receptor antagonist (0.1 mg/kg intraperitoneally daily); or PDRN plus DMPX. The treatment was initiated immediately after the second immunization and continued to day 45. Clinical evaluation of arthritis was performed throughout the study. On day 45, the animals were killed and the severity of arthritis was evaluated histologically. Cartilage expression and circulating levels of high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB-1), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-10 were investigated. Inflammatory cytokine production was also evaluated in stimulated human chondrocytes treated with PDRN.


PDRN treatment significantly ameliorated clinical signs of arthritis, improved histologic damage, reduced the cartilage expression and circulating levels of HMGB-1, TNFα, and IL-6, and enhanced IL-10 expression. The concomitant administration of DMPX and PDRN ablated the PDRN-induced protective effect in experimental arthritis. PDRN also reduced cytokine production from stimulated human chondrocytes.


Our findings indicate that PDRN may represent a new alternative for the treatment of arthritis.

Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

[PubMed – in process]

Cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the hepatic erythropoietin expression during acute-phase response: a role for IL-6


Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, Center of Internal Medicine, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.


The source of circulating erythropoietin (EPO), the mediators and the mechanisms involved in the upregulation of EPO gene expression during acute-phase reaction are still poorly understood. Acute-phase reaction was induced by either intramuscular turpentine oil (TO) or intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration into wild-type and interleukin (IL)-6 knockout (KO) mice. Animals were killed at different time points and blood, liver and muscle tissue were collected. Serum levels of EPO were measured by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay; liver and injured muscle samples were processed for RNA isolation and for protein analysis. EPO, hypoxia-inducible factors 1alpha and 2alpha (HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha) mRNA were analyzed by RT-PCR and the protein levels were analyzed by western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha localization was performed through immunofluorescence staining. EPO, HIF-1 and HIF-2 gene and protein expression levels were also analyzed in isolated mouse hepatocytes after stimulation with IL-6. In the wild-type animals, EPO serum levels increased dramatically at 12 h after the insults together with the hepatic gene expression. In TO-treated animals, the EPO gene expression reached an 8.2-fold increase at 12 h, and in LPS-treated mice a similar induction was recorded at 6 h (about 4.5-fold increase). In the IL-6KO strain, the upregulation after the inflammatory stimuli was much lower (only 2.0-fold increase). A progressive upregulation of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha was detectable until 6 h after the insults, but only HIF-1alpha upregulation was reduced in IL-6KO mice. In isolated hepatocytes, stimulation with a single dose of IL-6 induced a nuclear accumulation of HIF-1alpha, in parallel with an increase of EPO mRNA. No effect on HIF-2alpha expression was found. IL-6 appears to be the main regulator of EPO gene expression and a major contributor for HIF-1alpha induction in hepatocytes and Kupffer cells during acute-phase response. The increase of HIF-2alpha, predominantly expressed in endothelial cells and fibroblast-like cells, seems not to be affected by the lack of IL-6.

DOWNLOAD FULL ARTICLE IN PDF HERE: http://www.nature.com/labinvest/journal/v90/n9/pdf/labinvest201085a.pdf