Category: hair loss


BUY THYMOSIN BETA 4 HERE

Cell Biology Section, NIH, NIDCR, Building 30, Room 433, 30 Convent Dr. MSC 4370, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Abstract

Thymosin beta 4 is a small 43-amino-acid molecule that has multiple biological activities, including promotion of cell migration angiogenesis, cell survival, protease production, and wound healing. We have found that thymosin beta 4 promotes hair growth in various rat and mice models including a transgenic thymosin beta 4 overexpressing mouse. We have also determined the mechanism by which thymosin beta 4 acts to promote hair growth by examining its effects on follicle stem cell growth, migration, differentiation, and protease production.

PMID:
17947589
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Your hair or lack of will be the direct result of the lifelong tug-of-war in between activators that wake up, and cellular inhibitors that “calm” the stem cells in each and every hair follicle on your Body.  According to Dr Cheng-Ming Chuong of USC and his colleagues from Oxford University Dr Ruth Baker and Dr Philip Maini, the understanding of of “cellular automaton” model is crucial in helping describe the group behavior of hair follicles.The researchers discovered that every adult hair follicle can count only on their inherent growth-promoting signals, with out the assist of adjacent follicles within the macro-environment. In contrast to the growth promotion in Humans, the growth of rabbit and mice hair follicles will be dependent on signals from neighborly follicles.

The new cellular level automaton model consists of a normal grid of automation 1 hair follicle  with 4 distinct and functional cyclic stages. He also noted that Surrounding every automaton are 8 automata, which are the hair follicle’s neighbors.According to the stem cell blog website, Every automaton stage and modifications are based on guidelines that

Dr cheng ming chuong Cellular Level Modeling Predicts Hair Follicle Growth Via Stem CellsDr Cheng Ming Chuong

dictate if or not hair on human scalps or in animal’s fur coats will be caught up in large waves of growth known as the anagen phase, or stay within the telogen or resting phase. Under proper circumstances such as the winter season or a new physiological and/or developmental stage in an organism’s life like puberty for example, an amazing collective regeneration wave can sweep over your skin, activating all the hair stem cells in the individual follicles and even those in front of them, by the 10′s of thousands.

In other life stages, some individual hair follicles might even stay locked into the telogen stage by the inhibitors in their own macro-environment. The Inhibitor levels are carefully modulated in component by intradermal adipose tissue and also the central endocrine method. These numerous layers of manage produce a balance in between the inhibitory bone morphogenic protein or BMP. This is a signal that keeps hair stem cells in a calm quiescent state and later activating then with signals that wake them up.

The groundbreaking new information introduces a new method to treating androgenic alopecia, probably the most common type of hair loss or alopecia in most aging males: It may be simpler to obtain hair follicles expand them once more by enhancing their surrounding atmosphere, instead of the traditional stem cell treatments for hair loss.

Effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factors on cultured human hair follicles: IGF-I at physiologic concentrations is an important regulator of hair follicle growth in vitro.

Source

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hospital, U.K.

Abstract

Insulin stimulated hair follicle growth in a dose-dependent manner over the range of 0.01 to 100 micrograms/ml. Maximum rates of hair follicle growth were observed when follicles were maintained in medium containing 10 micrograms/ml insulin, which is supraphysiologic. Hair follicles maintained in the absence of insulin or at physiologic levels showed premature entry into a catagen-like state. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II had no significant effect on hair follicle growth when maintained in the presence of 10 micrograms/ml insulin. However, in the absence of insulin, both IGF-I (0.01-100 ng/ml) and IGF-II (0.01-100 ng/ml) stimulated hair follicle growth in a dose-dependent manner. IGF-I was more potent than either insulin or IGF-II, stimulating maximum rates of hair follicle growth at 10 ng/ml, whereas IGF-II gave maximum stimulation at 100 ng/ml. The rates of hair follicle growth stimulated by 10 ng/ml IGF-I were identical to those stimulated by 10 micrograms/ml insulin. IGF-II (100 ng/ml), however, was unable to stimulate hair follicle growth to the same extent as insulin. Both IGF-I (10 ng/ml) and IGF-II (100 ng/ml) were more potent than insulin at preventing hair follicles from entering into a catagen-like state. Growth hormone had no effect on hair follicle growth or morphology in the absence of insulin. These data suggest that in vitro IGF-I may be an important physiologic regulator of hair growth and possibly the hair growth cycle. Moreover, the removal of insulin from tissue culture medium may be a useful method of generating large numbers of catagen hair follicles for further in vitro studies.

PMID:
8006448
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Effect of topical application of raspberry ketone on dermal production of insulin-like growth factor-I in mice and on hair growth and skin elasticity in humans.

Source

Department of Translational Medical Science Research, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kawasumi 1, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan.

Abstract

Sensory neurons release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on activation. We recently reported that topical application of capsaicin increases facial skin elasticity and promotes hair growth by increasing dermal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production through activation of sensory neurons in mice and humans. Raspberry ketone (RK), a major aromatic compound contained in red raspberries (Rubus idaeus), has a structure similar to that of capsaicin. Thus, it is possible that RK activates sensory neurons, thereby increasing skin elasticity and promoting hair growth by increasing dermal IGF-I production. In the present study, we examined this possibility in mice and humans. RK, at concentrations higher than 1 microM, significantly increased CGRP release from dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) isolated from wild-type (WT) mice and this increase was completely reversed by capsazepine, an inhibitor of vanilloid receptor-1 activation. Topical application of 0.01% RK increased dermal IGF-I levels at 30 min after application in WT mice, but not in CGRP-knockout mice. Topical application of 0.01% RK increased immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I at dermal papillae in hair follicles and promoted hair re-growth in WT mice at 4 weeks after the application. When applied topically to the scalp and facial skin, 0.01% RK promoted hair growth in 50.0% of humans with alopecia (n=10) at 5 months after application and increased cheek skin elasticity at 2 weeks after application in 5 females (p<0.04). These observations strongly suggest that RK might increase dermal IGF-I production through sensory neuron activation, thereby promoting hair growth and increasing skin elasticity.

PMID:
18321745
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Chemical agents and peptides affect hair growth

Source

Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison 53715-1299.

Abstract

During the past decade we have examined both the therapeutic and the prophylactic effects of several agents on the macaque model of androgenetic alopecia. Minoxidil and diazoxide, potent hypotensive agents acting as peripheral vasodilators, are known to have a hypertrichotic side effect. Topical use of both agents induced significant hair regrowth in the bald scalps of macaques. The application of a steroid 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor (4MA) in non-bald preadolescent macaques has prevented baldness, whereas controls developed it during 2 years of treatment. The effects of hair growth were determined by 1) phototrichogram, 2) folliculogram (micro-morphometric analysis), and 3) the rate of DNA synthesis in the follicular cells. These effects were essentially a stimulation of the follicular cell proliferation, resulting in an enlargement of the anagen follicles from vellus to terminal type (therapy) or a maintenance of the prebald terminal follicles (prevention). A copper binding peptide (PC1031) had the effect of follicular enlargement on the back skin of fuzzy rats, covering the vellus follicles; the effect was similar to that of topical minoxidil. Analyzing the quantitative sequences of follicular size and cyclic phases, we speculate on the effect of agents on follicular growth. We also discuss the triggering mechanism of androgen in the follicular epithelial-mesenchymal (dermal papilla) interaction.

L-threonate, an ascorbate metabolite is a DHT blocker

Preventable effect of L-threonate, an ascorbate metabolite, on androgen-driven balding via repression of dihydrotestosterone-induced dickkopf-1 expression in human hair dermal papilla cells.

Source

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422, Korea. ysung@knu.ac.kr

Abstract

In a previous study, we recently claimed that dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-inducible dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) expression is one of the key factors involved in androgen-potentiated balding. We also demonstrated that L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (Asc 2-P) represses DHT-induced DKK-1 expression in cultured dermal papilla cells (DPCs). Here, we investigated whether or not L-threonate could attenuate DHT-induced DKK-1 expression. We observed via RT-PCR analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that DHT-induced DKK-1 expression was attenuated in the presence of L-threonate. We also found that DHT-induced activation of DKK-1 promoter activity was significantly repressed by L-threonate. Moreover, a co-culture system featuring outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes and DPCs showed that DHT inhibited the growth of ORS cells, which was then significantly reversed by L-threonate. Collectively, these results indicate that L-threonate inhibited DKK-1 expression in DPCs and therefore is a good treatment for the prevention of androgen-driven balding.

PMID:
21034532
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate represses the dihydrotestosterone-induced dickkopf-1 expression in human balding dermal papilla cells.

Abstract

Recent studies suggested that dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-driven alteration in the autocrine and paracrine factors may be a key to androgen-potentiated balding. Also, we recently claimed that DHT-inducible dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is one of the key factors involved in the androgen-potentiated balding. Here, we investigated whether L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (Asc 2-P), a derivative of L-ascorbic acid, could attenuate DHT-induced DKK-1 expression in dermal papilla cells (DPCs) from balding scalp. We observed that DHT-induced DKK-1 mRNA expression was attenuated in the presence of Asc 2-P as examined by RT-PCR analysis. In addition, we found that DHT-induced activation of luciferase reporter activity was significantly repressed when Asc 2-P was added together with DHT. Moreover, Asc 2-P repressed DHT-induced DKK-1 protein expression as examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Although there will be many hurdles to apply our finding to actual remedies, these results suggest that it would be worthy to evaluate Asc 2-P or its derivatives for the treatment and prevention of androgen-driven balding.

© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

PMID:
20701628
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

>Thyroid hormones directly alter human hair follicle functions: anagen prolongation and stimulation of both hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and hair pigmentation

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23538 Lübeck, Germany.

Abstract

CONTEXT: Both insufficient and excess levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) can result in altered hair/skin structure and function (e.g. effluvium). However, it is still unclear whether T3 and T4 exert any direct effects on human hair follicles (HFs), and if so, how exactly human HFs respond to T3/T4 stimulation.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to asses the impact of T3/T4 on human HF in vitro.

METHODS: Human anagen HFs were isolated from skin obtained from females undergoing facelift surgery. HFs from euthyroid females between 40 and 69 yr (average, 56 yr) were cultured and treated with T3/T4.

RESULTS: Studying microdissected, organ-cultured normal human scalp HFs, we show here that T4 up-regulates the proliferation of hair matrix keratinocytes, whereas their apoptosis is down-regulated by T3 and T4. T4 also prolongs the duration of the hair growth phase (anagen) in vitro, possibly due to the down-regulation of TGF-beta2, the key anagen-inhibitory growth factor. Because we show here that human HFs transcribe deiodinase genes (D2 and D3), they may be capable of converting T4 to T3. Intrafollicular immunoreactivity for the recognized thyroid hormone-responsive keratins cytokeratin (CK) 6 and CK14 is significantly modulated by T3 and T4 (CK6 is enhanced, CK14 down-regulated). Both T3 and T4 also significantly stimulate intrafollicular melanin synthesis.

CONCLUSIONS: Thus, we present the first evidence that human HFs are direct targets of thyroid hormones and demonstrate that T3 and/or T4 modulate multiple hair biology parameters, ranging from HF cycling to pigmentation.

PMID: 18728176 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

FULL ARTICLE IN PDF

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Pharmacological Evaluation Laboratory, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 403, Yoshino-cho 1-chome, Saitama-shi, Saitama 330-8530, Japan.

Abstract

The length and size of hair are depend on the anagen term in its hair cycle. It has been reported that the some cell growth factors, such as VEGF, FGF-5S, IGF-1 and KGF, induce the proliferation of cells in the matrix, dermal papilla and dermal papillary vascular system and increase the amount of extra cellular matrix in dermal papilla and then maintain follicles in the anagen phase. On the other hand, negative factors, like FGF-5, thrombospondin, or still unknown ones, terminate the anagen phase. If the negative factors become dominant against cell proliferation factors according to fulfilling some time set by the biological clock for hair follicles, TGF beta induced in the matrix tissues evokes apoptosis of matrix cells and shifts the follicles from anagen to catagen. Androgenetic alopecia is caused by miniaturizing of hair follicles located in the frontal or crown part of scalp and are hereditarily more sensitive to androgen. In their hair cycles, the androgen shortens the anagen phase of follicles and shifts them to the catagen phase earlier than usual. The mode of action of hair growth effect of minoxidil is not completely elucidated, but the most plausible explanation proposed here is that minoxidil works as a sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) activator and prolongs the anagen phase of hair follicles in the following manner: minoxidil (1) induces cell growth factors such as VEGF, HGF, IGF-1 and potentiates HGF and IGF-1 actions by the activation of uncoupled SUR on the plasma membrane of dermal papilla cells, (2) inhibits of TGF beta induced apoptosis of hair matrix cells by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the mitochondrial inner membrane, and (3) dilates hair follicle arteries and increases blood flow in dermal papilla by opening the Kir 6.0 channel pore coupled with SUR on the plasma membrane of vascular smooth muscle cells.

PMID: 11915519 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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L-carnitine-L-tartrate promotes human hair growth in vitro

The trimethylated amino acid l-carnitine plays a key role in the intramitochondrial transport of fatty acids for beta-oxidation and thus serves important functions in energy metabolism. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that l-carnitine, a frequently employed dietary supplement, may also stimulate hair growth by increasing energy supply to the massively proliferating and energy-consuming anagen hair matrix. Hair follicles (HFs) in the anagen VI stage of the hair cycle were cultured in the presence of 0.5-50 microm of l-carnitine-l-tartrate (CT) for 9 days. At day 9, HFs treated with 5 microm or 0.5 microm of CT showed a moderate, but significant stimulation of hair shaft elongation compared with vehicle-treated controls (P < 0.05). Also, CT prolonged the duration of anagen VI, down regulated apoptosis (as measured by TUNEL assay) and up regulated proliferation (as measured by Ki67 immunohistology) of hair matrix keratinocytes (P < 0.5). By immunohistology, intrafollicular immunoreactivity for TGFbeta2, a key catagen-promoting growth factor, in the dermal papilla and TGF-beta II receptor protein in the outer root sheath and dermal papilla was down regulated. As shown by caspase activity assay, caspase 3 and 7, which are known to initiate apoptosis, are down regulated at day 2 and day 4 after treatment of HFs with CT compared with vehicle-treated control indicating that CT has an immediate protective effect on HFs to undergo programmed cell death. Our findings suggest that l-carnitine stimulates human scalp hair growth by up regulation of proliferation and down regulation of apoptosis in follicular keratinocytes in vitro. They further encourage one to explore topical and nutraceutical administration of l-carnitine as a well-tolerated, relatively safe adjuvant treatment in the management of androgenetic alopecia and other forms of hair loss.

PMID: 17927577 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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Melatonin, the chief secretory product of the pineal gland, has long been known to modulate hair growth, pigmentation and/or molting in many species, presumably as a key neuroendocrine regulator that couples coat phenotype and function to photoperiod-dependent environmental and reproductive changes. However, the detailed effects and mechanisms of this surprisingly pleiotropic indole on the hair follicle (HF) regarding growth control and pigmentation have not yet been completely understood. While unspecific melatonin binding sites have long been identified (e.g., in goat and mouse HFs), specific melatonin membrane MT2 receptor transcripts and both protein and mRNA expression for a specific nuclear melatonin binding site [retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORalpha)] have only recently been identified in murine HFs. MT1, known to be expressed in human skin cells, is not transcribed in mouse skin. After initial enzymologic data from hamster skin related to potential intracutaneous melatonin synthesis, it has recently been demonstrated that murine and human skin, namely human scalp HFs in anagen, are important sites of extrapineal melatonin synthesis. Moreover, HF melatonin production is enhanced by catecholamines (as it classically occurs in the pineal gland). Melatonin may also functionally play a role in hair-cycle control, as it down-regulates both apoptosis and estrogen receptor-alpha expression, and modulates MT2 and RORalpha expression in murine skin in a hair-cycle-dependent manner. Because of melatonin’s additional potency as a free radical scavenger and DNA repair inducer, the metabolically and proliferatively highly active anagen hair bulb may also exploit melatonin synthesis in loco as a self-cytoprotective strategy.

PMID: 18078443 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]